UNSW Qubit in Silicon

Quantum Computing Comes to Silicon.

Traditional computing is bound in binary data, the world of zeroes and ones. This constraint was originally born out of a engineering limitation, designed to ensure that these different states could be easily represented by differing voltage levels. This hasn’t proved to be much of a limiting factor in the progress that computing has made however but there are different styles of computing which make use of more than just those zeroes and ones. The most notable one is quantum computing which is able to represent an exponential amount of states depending on the number of qubits (analogous to transistors) that the quantum chip has. Whilst there have been some examples of quantum computers hitting the market, even if their quantum-ness is still in question, they are typically based on exotic materials meaning mass production of them is tricky. This could change with the latest research to come out of the University of New South Wales as they’ve made an incredible breakthrough.

UNSW Qubit in Silicon

Back in 2012 the team at UNSW demonstrated that they could build a single qubit in silicon. This by itself was an amazing discovery as previously created qubits were usually reliant on materials like niobium cooled to superconducting temperatures to achieve their quantum state. However a single qubit isn’t exactly useful on its own and so the researchers were tasked with getting their qubits talking to each other. This is a lot harder than you’d think as qubits don’t communicate in the same way that regular transistors do and so traditional techniques for connecting things in silicon won’t work. So after 3 years worth of research UNSW’s quantum computing team has finally cracked it and allowed two qubits made in silicon to communicate.

This has allowed them to build a quantum logic gate, the fundamental building block for a larger scale quantum computer. One thing that will be interesting to see is how their system scales out with additional qubits. It’s one thing to get two qubits talking together, indeed there’s been several (non-silicon) examples of that in the past, however as you scale up the number of qubits things start to get a lot more difficult. This is because larger numbers of qubits are more prone to quantum decoherence and typically require additional circuitry to overcome it. Whilst they might be able to mass produce a chip with a large number of qubits it might not be of any use if the qubits can’t stay in coherence.

It will be interesting to see what applications their particular kind of quantum chip will have once they build a larger scale version of it. Currently the commercially available quantum computers from D-Wave are limited to a specific problem space called quantum annealing and, as of yet, have failed to conclusively prove that they’re achieving a quantum speedup. The problem is larger than just D-Wave however as there is still some debate about how we classify quantum speedup and how to properly compare it to more traditional methods. Still this is an issue that UNSW’s potential future chip will have to face should it come to market.

We’re still a long way off from seeing a generalized quantum computer hitting the market any time soon but achievements like those coming out of UNSW are crucial in making them a reality. We have a lot of investment in developing computers on silicon and if those investments can be directly translated to quantum computing then it’s highly likely that we’ll see a lot of success. I’m sure the researchers are going to have several big chip companies knocking down their doors to get a license for this tech as it really does have a lot of potential.

Destiny The Taken King Screenshot Wallpaper Title Screen

Destiny: The Taken King: Oryx Has Come For Your Light.

Destiny was the first game to break my staunch opposition to playing first person shooters on consoles. Being a long time member of the PC master race meant that it took me quite a while to get used to the way consoles do things and had it not been for Destiny’s MMORPG stylings I might not have stuck it through. However I’m glad I did as the numerous hours I’ve spent in Destiny since then were ones I very much enjoyed. The time between me capping out at level 32 and the release of the House of Wolves expansion though was long enough for me to fall back to DOTA 2 and I missed much of that release. The Taken King however promised to completely upend the way Destiny did things and proved to be the perfect time for me to reignite my addiction to Bungie’s flagship IP.

Destiny The Taken King Screenshot Wallpaper Title Screen

Six of you went down into that pit, looking to end the dark grip that Crota held on our Moon. His death rung out across the galaxy, sending ripples through the darkness. His father, Oryx, felt his son slip from this plane and immediately swore vengeance upon you and the light. Oryx has appeared in our system aboard a mighty dreadnought, capable of decimating entire armies with a single attack. Slayer of Crota it is now up to you to face Oryx as he and his Taken are swarming over the entire solar system and threaten to snuff out the light once and for all. Are you strong enough to face this challenge guardian?

Graphically Destiny hasn’t change much, retaining the same level of impressive graphics that aptly demonstrate the capabilities of current generation console hardware. There has been a significant overhaul to the UI elements however with the vast majority of them looking sharper and feeling a lot more responsive. It might sound like a minor detail but it’s a big leap up in some regards, especially with the new quest/mission and bounty interface. It’s the kind of stuff you’d expect to see in expansions like this and I doubt we’ll see any major graphical changes until Destiny 2.0.

Destiny The Taken King Screenshot Wallpaper Into The Breach

The core game is mostly unchanged, consisting of the same cover based shooter game play with the RPG elements sprinkled on top. Every class has been granted a new subclass meaning that each of them now has one that covers each of the elements (fire, void and arc). The levelling and progression system has been significantly overhauled, providing a much smoother experience to levelling your character up both in level and gear terms. Many of the ancillary activities, like the Nightfall and Exotic Bounties, have also been reworked to favour continuous progression rather than constant praying to RNGJesus. Additionally there’s been many quality of life improvements which have made doing lots of things in Destiny a lot easier, much to the relief of long term players like myself. This is all in concert with a campaign that’s about half as long again as the original, making The Taken King well worth its current asking price.

The new subclasses might sound like a small addition but they’ve given new life to a lot of aspects of Destiny. Each new class essentially filled a hole that was lacking in the other two, allowing each class to be far more versatile than they were previously. The only issue I have with them so far is that the new subclasses feel a lot better at more things than their predecessors do which means pretty much everyone is solely using those classes now. Sure the Defender Titan’s bubble is still the ultimate defensive super however it pales in comparison to the toolset that the Sunbreaker has at their disposal. This might just be my impression given my current playstyle (mostly solo) and may change when I finally attempt the raid this week.

Destiny The Taken King Screenshot Wallpaper Mission Screen

The revamp of the levelling system is probably the most welcome change. Unlike before where your level was determined by the light your gear had the new maximum level is now 40, achievable through grinding XP like any other RPG. Then once you hit the maximum level you have your Light Level which is an average of your gear’s damage output and defensive capabilities. As it stands right now that’s pretty much the only thing that matters when you’re attempting an encounter and so the higher your light level the easier it will be. Whilst it’s not a huge change from the previous system it does mean that there’s quite a lot more variety in terms of what gear you’ll end up using. This also means that a lot more pieces of gear, even those lowly blues which we used to disassemble immediately, are now quite viable.

This comes hand in hand with a revamp of how you can obtain gear in the game. Whilst there are still guaranteed ways of obtaining gear through marks (now Legendary Marks which are slightly hard to come by) you’ll mostly be looking for engrams. The engram rate has been significantly increased and when you get them decrypted they’ll roll a random light level in a +/- range of your current light level. This means that, in order to progress, it’s best to equip your highest light level gear and decode engrams. Doing this I was able to get myself to light level 295 in a relatively short period of time, more than enough to attempt the raid. This, coupled with the new avenues to better gear, mean that progression is far smoother than it was before.

Destiny The Taken King Screenshot Wallpaper Hammer of Sol

The revamped quest and bounties system has everything in it that guardians have been asking for from day one. There’s now a separate tab that has everything in it, allowing you to track objectives so you can quickly see your status without having to pop out into the menu. This has allowed Bungie to include multiple questlines that all run simultaneously, something which was just not possible before. Many of these quests will help you get solid boosts in your light level and, if you follow some of the longer ones, unlock some of the best gear in the game. By far the stand out piece, in my mind, is the heavy sword which (when fully levelled) makes PVE encounters a breeze and the crucible a punchbro’s dream.

The Taken King expansion also gets massive kudos for fleshing out the lore of Destiny significantly. Part of this comes from the extended campaign missions that take you deep into the world of the Hive and the Taken but there’s also dozens of new bits of information scattered throughout the world (accessible through ghost scans). The Books of Sorrow provide a lot of background detail to all the races and their involvement with the Darkness as well as providing some insight into the events that led up to the Traveller’s current state. I’m still picking through it myself but it’s honestly great to see Bungie fleshing out this world as there’s so much potential here and I’d hate for it to go to waste. Additionally Nolan North replacing Peter Dinklage as the voice of your ghost is a welcome change, as is the addition of many more hours of voice acting from all the central characters.

Destiny The Taken King Screenshot Wallpaper Lookin Sharp

Destiny: The Taken King is the expansion that all guardians had hoped for, bringing with it all the improvements that were sorely needed. It’s a testament to Bungie’s dedication to this IP as the amount of extra content they’ve released for Destiny in just one year is, honestly, staggering. The changes they made with this latest expansion have improved the experience dramatically, both for casual players and the hardcore alike. If you’d been staving off playing Destiny then now would definitely be a great time to give it a whirl as this is the game many are saying it should have been at launch. For long time guardians like myself it’s what was needed to bring me back to the fold and keep me playing for a long time to come.

Rating: 9.5/10

Destiny: The Taken King is available on PlayStation3, PlayStation4, XboxOne and Xbox360 for $79, $79, $79 and $79 respectively. Game was played on the PlayStation4 with approximately 20 hours of play time, reaching light level 295.


Freevolt: Yet Again “Free Energy” Rears Its Ugly Head.

Our world is dominated by devices that need to be plugged in on a regular basis, a necessary tedium for the ever connected lifestyle many of us now lead. Doing away with that is an appealing idea, leaving the cords for things that never move. That idea won’t become reality any time soon however, due to the challenges we face in miniaturization of power generation and storage. That, of course, hasn’t stopped numerous companies from saying that they have done so with the most recent batch purporting to be able to harvest energy from wireless signals. The latest company to do this is called Freevolt and unfortunately their PR department has fallen prey to the superlative claims that many of its predecessors have.


Their idea is the same as pretty much all the other free energy ideas that have cropped up over the past couple of years. Essentially their device (which shares the company’s name) has a couple different antennas on it which can harvest electromagnetic waves and transform them into energy. Unlike other devices, which typically were some kind of purpose built thing that just “never needed recharging”, Freevolt wants to be the platform on which developers build devices that use their technology. Their website showcases numerous applications that they believe their device will be able to power including things like wearables and smoke alarms. The only current application of their technology though is the CleanSpace tag which, as of writing, is not available.

Had Freevolt constrained their marketing spiel to just ultra low power things like individual sensors I would’ve let it slide however they’re not just claiming that. The fact of the matter is that numerous devices which they claim could be powered by this tech simply couldn’t be, especially with their current form factors. Their website clearly shows something like a health tracker which is far too small to contain the required antennas and electronics, not to mention that their power requirements are far above the 100 microwatts they claim they can generate. Indeed even devices that could integrate the technology, like a smoke alarm, would still have current draws above what this device could provide.

To be fair their whitepaper makes far more tempered claims about what their device is capable of, mostly aimed at extending battery life rather than outright replacing it. However, whilst such claims might be realistic, they fail to account for the fact that many of the same benefits they’re purporting could likely be achieve by simply adding another battery to the device. I don’t know how much their device will cost but I’d hazard a guess that it’d cost a lot more than adding in an additional battery pack. This is all based on the assumption that the device operates in an environment that’s heavy enough in RF to charge the device at its optimal rate, something which I don’t think will hold true in enough cases to make it viable.

I seriously don’t understand why companies continue to pursue ideas like this as they have either turn out to be completely farcical, infeasible or simply just not economically viable. Sure there is energy to be harvested from EM waves but the energy is so low that the cost of acquiring that energy is far beyond any of the alternatives. Freevolt might think they’re onto something but the second they start shipping their dev kit I can guarantee the field results will be nothing like what they’re purporting. Not that that will discourage anyone from trying it again though as it seems there’s always another fool willing to be parted with their money.


Researchers Create Long Term Memory Encoding Prosthesis.

The brain is still largely a mystery to modern science. Whilst we’ve mapped out the majority of what parts do what we’re still in the dark about how they manage to accomplish their various feats. Primarily this is a function of the brain’s inherit complexity, containing some 100 trillion connections between the billions of neurons that make up its meagre mass. However like all problems the insurmountable challenge of decrypting the brain’s functions is made easier by looking at smaller parts of it. Researchers at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering and the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have been doing just that and have been able to recreate a critical part of the brain’s functionality in hardware.


The researchers have recreated the part of the brain called the hippocampus, the part of the brain that’s responsible for translating sensory input into long term memories. In patients that suffer from diseases like Alzheimer’s this is usually the first part that gets damaged, preventing them from forming new memories (but leaving old ones unaffected). The device they have created can essentially replace part of the hippocampus, facilitating the same encoding functions that a non-damaged section would provide. Such a device has the potential to drastically increase the quality of life of many people, enabling them to once again form new memories.

The device comes out of decades of research into how the brain processes sensory input into long term memories. The researchers initially tested their device on laboratory animals, implanting the device into healthy subjects. Then they recorded the input and output of the hippocampus, showing how the signals were translated for long term storage. This data was then used to create a model of this section of the hippocampus, allowing the researchers to then take over the job of encoding those signals. Previous research showed that, even when the animal’s long term memory function was impaired through drugs, the prosthesis was able to generate new memories.

That in and of itself is impressive however the researchers have been replicating their work with human patients. Using nine test subjects, all of whom had the requisite electrodes implanted in the right regions to treat chronic seizures, the researchers utilized the same process to develop a human based model. Whilst they haven’t yet used that to help in the creation of new memories in humans they have proven that their human model produces the same signals as the hippocampus does in 90% of cases. For patients who currently have no ability to form new long term memories this could very well be enough to drastically improve their quality of life.

This research has vast potential as there are many parts of the brain that could be mapped in the same way. The hippocampus is critical in the formation of non-procedural long term memories however there are other sections, like the motor and visual cortices, which could benefit from similar mapping. There’s every chance that those sections can’t be mapped directly like this but it’s definitely an area of potentially fruitful research. Indeed whilst we still not know how the brain stores information we might be able to repair the mechanisms that feed it, and that could help a lot of people.


NASA Detects Flowing Water on Mars.

We’ve known for some time that water exists in some forms on Mars. The Viking program, which consisted of both orbiter and lander craft, showed that Mars’ surface had many characteristics that must have been shaped by water. Further probes such as Mars Odyssey and the Phoenix Lander showed that much of the present day water that Mars holds is present at the poles, trapped in the vast frozen tundra. There’s been a lot of speculation about how liquid water could exist on Mars today however no conclusive proof had been found. That was until today when NASA announced it had proof that liquid water flows on Mars, albeit in a very salty form.


The report comes out of the Georgia Institute of Technology with collaborators from NASA’s Ames Research Center, Johns Hopkins University, University of Arizona and the Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique. Using data gathered from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter the researchers had identified that there were seasonal geologic features on Mars’ surface. These dark lines (pictured above) were dubbed recurring slope lineae would change over time, darkening and appearing to flow during the warmer months and then fading during the colder months. It has been thought for some time that these slopes were indicative of liquid water flows however there wasn’t any evidence to support that theory.

This is where the MRO’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) comes into play. This instrument was specifically designed to detect water on Mars by looking at varying wavelengths of light emitted from the planet’s surface. Once the target sites were identified CRISM was then pointed at them and their surface composition analysed. What was found at the RSL sites were minerals called hydrated salts which, when mixed with water, would lower the freezing point of the water significantly. Interestingly these hydrated salts were only detected in places were the RSL features were particularly wide as other places, where the RSLs were slimmer, did not show any signs of hydrated salts.

These salts, called perchlorates, have been seen before by several other Mars missions although they’ve never been witnessed in hydrated form before. These perchlorates can potentially keep water from freezing at temperatures down to -70°C. Additionally some of these perchlorates can be used in the manufacturing of rocket fuel, something which could prove to be quite valuable for future missions to Mars. Of course they’re likely not in their readily usable form, requiring some processing on site before they can be utilized.

Data like this presents many new opportunities for further research on Mars. It’s currently postulated that these RSLs are likely the result of a shallow subsurface flow which is wicking up to the surface when the conditions are warmer. If this is the case then these sites would be the perfect place for a rover to investigate as there’s every chance it could directly sample martian water at these sites. Considering that wherever we find liquid water on Earth we find life then there’s great potential for the same thing to happen on Mars. If there isn’t then that will also tell us a lot which means its very much worth investigating.

The Magic Cricle Review Screenshot Wallpaper Title Screen

The Magic Circle: Perfectionism vs Fandom.

All gamers have an idea of a game they want to make. It could be anything from a novel mechanic through to a fully fleshed out story, but it’s there hanging around in the back of our minds. However for those of us who’ve attempted to bring that idea into reality we often come crashing into the cold hard truth of the games industry: making games is hard. For the precious few that make it through the process (and fewer still who see success from it) the scars of game development are forever burned into their psyche. The Magic Circle is a game that chronicles this journey, with all the dark humour and self-loathing that permeates much of the game industry.

The Magic Cricle Review Screenshot Wallpaper Title Screen

To its fans The Magic Circle was a brilliant example of interactive fiction, a game deserving of the title of cult classic. The sequel however has been one of the most beleaguered projects in the history of gaming, having been in development for some 20 years with little to show for it. The creator’s perfectionism has kept the sequel in a perpetual state of unfinishedness, never being satisfied enough to ship anything. You are one of the games’ long time fans who’s been hired as a playtester for the current iteration of the game. Whilst your experience confirms that yes, there is a game, it’s no where near complete. However when you finish the small section you’re contacted by an AI from a previous generation of the game who shows you how to take control of this unfinished world.

The Magic Circle looks and feels like an unfinished game, although under the hood it’s anything but. The choice of a bleak black and white aesthetic for one world (and a low-res, 8-bit colour palette for the other) reinforces that unfinished feeling. Interestingly though the whole world is properly textured as evidenced by the fact that your character brings colour wherever it steps. It’s the kind of stuff you’d expect to see in a pre-alpha or similarly beta indie game although there’s an obvious layer of polish that would otherwise be missing from such early stage games. Suffice to say Question Games have done a good job of creating a “finished-unfinished” world.

The Magic Cricle Review Screenshot Wallpaper An Uncoloured World

Like most early stage games The Magic Circle is a mishmash of different ideas that are all cobbled together. The initial game starts out as something of a walking simulator with you just viewing the scenery. However it quickly transforms into a kind of puzzle game where you can modify the behaviour of enemies and objects within the world. This can be something as simple as making something your ally instead of your enemy or completely changing the way an object moves or interacts. This is how you start breaking the game, changing things around so you can access more areas that you shouldn’t be able to. Finally at the end you’re put in charge of actually developing a game level and you’ll get reviewed on how fun it is. This is all the while you’re privy to commentary from the game’s developers, giving you an insight into the creator’s vision and why it’s never quite managed to be released.

The initial game modification section of The Magic Circle is quite fun as there are numerous different ways to approach many of the puzzles when you first start out. These start to thin out a bit as you get towards the later puzzles as most of them really only have one solution. Still the rudimentary control you have over the NPCs does present some rather fun opportunities like sending wave after wave of rats at the Hive Queen in an attempt to defeat her. Of course there’s only so much mucking about you can do before you’ve found all the secrets and want to move on. Thankfully that’s not hard at all and it’s at that point the game takes on a very meta twist.

The Magic Cricle Review Screenshot Wallpaper Ishmael The Unfinished

It’s at this point you’re thrust into a demo game for E4 and given the choice of whether or not to muck with it. This then leads onto you watching them playing the demo live on stage whilst all chaos breaks loose. Then after that you’re given the task of creating the sequel with a rudimentary level editor. It’s actually pretty interesting to try and figure out how to maximise the review score at the end and the commentary given to you by Old Pro is quite entertaining. You’re then thrown back to your desktop where you’re able to replay the game, redo your level or simply click around to find out some more details about the game.

It’s interesting to see a satirized version of events that are familiar to many gamers, namely sequels that seem to be forever in development due to its creator’s perfectionism. Indeed it feels like a game more for developers, industry insiders and observers more than anything. If anything the story is more like a 3 hour long treatise on the pitfalls of developing a game and the potential boons for those who manage to stick it through. Whilst I enjoyed it, even Ishmael’s long rant about how it’s all about the player and their destructive wishes, I know that kind of story isn’t for everyone.

The Magic Cricle Review Screenshot Wallpaper Chose Your Own Sequel

The Magic Circle demonstrates in a beautifully satirical way the agony that is game development. The world is expertly crafted to resemble a pre-alpha game that’s a mash of too many ideas, all coexisting in the same code base which end up mashing together in unintended ways. This is reflected in the game play which is based around messing with things and changing up behaviours so you can access things you otherwise wouldn’t be able to. The story is one that definitely has a specific target audience in mind and, whilst it might not be for everyone, definitely plays to its strengths as a piece of commentary on the industry. It might not meet my criteria for a must-play game for everyone but if, like me, you feel like a part of the greater games industry, then there’s definitely a lot to like in The Magic Circle.

Rating: 8/10

The Magic Circle is available on PC right now for $19.99. Total play time was approximately 3 hours with 36% of the achievements unlocked.

The Solar System to Scale.

Scale is something that’s hard to comprehend when it comes to celestial sized objects. The sheer vastness of space is so far beyond anything that we see in our everyday lives that it becomes incomprehensible. Yet in such scale I find perspective and understanding, knowing that the universe is far greater than anything going on in just one of its countless planets. To really grasp that scale though you have to experience it; to understand that even in our cosmic backyard the breadth of space is astounding. That’s just what the following video does:

Absolutely beautiful.


Light Based Memory Paves the Way for Optical Computing.

Computing as we know it today is all thanks to one plucky little component: the transistor. This simple piece of technology, which is essentially an on/off switch that can be electronically controlled, is what has enabled the computing revolution of the last half century. However it has many well known limitations most of which stem from the fact that it’s an electrical device and is thus constrained by the speed of electricity. That speed is about 1/100th of that of light so there’s been a lot of research into building a computer that uses light instead of electricity. One of the main challenges that an optical computer has faced is storage as light is a rather tricky thing to pin down and the conversion process into electricity (so it can be stored in traditional memory structures) would negate many of the benefits. This might be set to change as researchers have developed a non-volatile storage platform based on phase-change materials.


The research comes out of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology with collaborations from the universities of Münster, Oxford, and Exeter. The memory cell which they’ve developed can be written at speeds of up to 1GHz, impressive considering most current memory devices are limited to somewhere around a 1/5th of that. The actual memory cell itself is made up of phase-change material (a material that can shift between crystalline and amorphous states) Ge2Sb2Te5, or GST for short. When this material is exposed to a high-intensity light beam its state will shift. This state can then be read later on by using less intense light, allowing a data cell to be changed and erased.

One novel property that the researchers have discovered is that their cell is capable of storing data in more than just a binary format. You see the switch between amorphous and crystalline states isn’t distinct like it is with a transistor which essentially means that a single optical cell could store more data than a single electrical cell. Of course to use such cells with current binary architecture would mean that these cells would need a proper controller to do the translation but that’s not exactly a new idea in computing. For a completely optical computer however that might not be required but such an idea is still a way off from seeing a real world implementation.

The only thing that concerns me about this is the fact that it’s based on phase change materials. There’s been numerous devices based on them, most often in the realms of storage, which have purported to revolutionize the world of computing. However to date not one of them has managed to escape the lab and the technology has always been a couple years away. It’s not that they don’t work, they almost always do, more that they either can’t scale or producing them at volume proves to be prohibitively expensive. This light cell faces the unique challenge that a computing platform built for it currently doesn’t exist yet and I don’t think it can compete with traditional memory devices without it.

It is a great step forward however for the realm of light based computing. With quantum computing likely being decades or centuries away from becoming a reality and traditional computing facing more challenges than it ever has we must begin investigating alternatives. Light based computing is one of the most promising fields in my mind and it’s great to see progress when it’s been so hard to come by in the past.


3D Printed Prosthesis Regenerates Nerves.

Nerve damage has almost always been permanent. For younger patients there’s hope for full recovery after an incident but as we get older the ability to repair nerve damage decreases significantly. Indeed by the time we reach our 60s the best we could hope for is what’s called “protective sensation”, the ability to determine things like hot from cold. The current range of treatments are mostly limited to grafts, often using nerves from the patient’s own body to repair the damage, however even those have limited success in practice. However that could all be set to change with the development of a process which can produce nerve regeneration conduits using 3D scanning and printing.


The process was developed by a collaboration of numerous scientists from the following institutions: University of Minnesota, Virginia Tech, University of Maryland, Princeton University, and Johns Hopkins University. The research builds upon one current cutting edge treatment which uses special structures to trigger regeneration, called nerve guidance conduits. Traditionally such conduits could only be produced in simple shapes, meaning they were only able to repair nerve damage in straight lines. This new treatment however can work on any arbitrary nerve structure and has proven to work in restoring both motor and sensory function in severed nerves both in-vitro (in a petri dish) and in-vivo (in a living thing).

How they accomplished this is really quite impressive. First they used a 3D scanner to reproduce the structure of the nerve they’re trying to regenerate, in this case it was the sciatic nerve (pictured above). Then they used the resulting model to 3D print a nerve guidance conduit that was the exact size and shape required. This was then implanted into a mouse who had a 10mm gap in their sciatic nerve (far too long to be sewn back together). This conduit then successfully triggered the regeneration of the nerve and after 10 weeks the rat showed a vastly improved ability to walk again. Since this process had only been verified on linear nerves before this process shows great promise for regenerating much more complicated nerve structures, like those found in us humans.

The great thing about this is that it can be used for any arbitrary nerve structure. Hospitals equipped with such a system would be able to scan the injury, print the appropriate nerve guide and then implant it into the patient all on site. This could have wide reaching ramifications for the treatment of nerve injuries, allowing far more to be treated and without the requisite donor nerves needing to be harvested.

Of course this treatment has not yet been tested in humans but the FDA has approved similar versions of this treatment in years past which have proven to be successful. With that in mind I’m sure that this treatment will prove successful in a human model and from there it’s only a matter of time before it finds its way into patients worldwide. Considering how slow progress has been in this area it’s quite heartening to see dramatic results like this and I’m sure further research into this area will prove just as fruitful.

Mad Max Review Screenshot Wallpaper Title Screen

Mad Max: Before His Silence.

Movie tie-in games are some of the most derided games ever to grace our presence and with good reason. Often they’re given a woefully insufficient amount of time to come up with a playable product and quality is the first thing that hits the chopping block, leaving them bug ridden messes of half finished dreck. The last few years have seen a few titles rise above the filth however and whilst none of them have been game of the year material they have been pleasurable surprises. Mad Max is one such gem, taking the essence of the movie and distilling it down into a very playable experience.

Mad Max Review Screenshot Wallpaper Title Screen

The world lies barren, scorched by an intense nuclear war. Those that survived the collapse struggle to survive, scavenging what they could from the remnants of society that lie scattered about. This world now belongs to the ruthless and violent with gangs and war bands patrolling the sandy dunes looking for people and places to pillage. You are Max, a survivor who has lost everything since the collapse and wants nothing to do with this world any more. So he has resigned himself to cross the Plains of Silence in his Black on Black, an Interceptor capable of making the long journey. However his plans are foiled by Scabrous Scrotus, son of the warlord Immortan Joe who steals everything from him. You are not so easily beaten however and you turn your eyes to recovering your Black on Black and making Scrotus pay for what he did.

The wasteland setting for Mad Max is quite beautiful with the plains stretching out to the horizon in every direction. It’s the definition of an open world game with nearly every bit of scenery that you can see being accessible and part of the game. There’s definitely been a lot of effort put into crafting certain aspects of the scenery, like the dust you kick up when going offroad and the slight changes in the howls that each engine emits. It’s also got enough visual variety that you don’t feel like you’re driving through the same place all the time as each area has its own distinct theme. Thankfully this all comes to you fully optimized, something which games with lots of open space like this often get wrong.

Mad Max Review Screenshot Wallpaper is it Safe

On first blush Mad Max is your typical open worlder, with all the standard trimmings of campaign missions, side missions and a lack of direction of which one you should do when. If I was to compare it to recent open world titles it’d be somewhere in the middle between Far Cry 4 and Batman: Arkham Knight. You’ve got your typical progression in the form of skills and equipment, both for your vehicle (the Magnum Opus) and Max himself, some of which are locked behind story missions whilst others through open world objectives. There’s camps for you to capture, places for you to explore and hordes of enemies bounding around for you to take out or avoid. Combat comes in two flavours: the stylized beat ’em up hand to hand combat while on foot as Max as well as some in-car combat which is a little more rudimentary. Suffice to say I was surprised at just how much was crammed into this game given its origins as a movie tie-in.

If you’re a fan of the Arkham series of combat then Mad Max is right up your alley with the controls and style being instantly familiar. There’s not as much variety in moves and finishers however it’s still quite a challenge to rack up long combo streaks without getting interrupted. There’s a few rough edges on the combat though which really start to show in the later stages of the game. Essentially you can get yourself into a situation where there’s no way for you to block or counter an incoming move, ruining your chain (and potentially losing you an upgrade point). Usually this happens when you’re doing a finisher which triggers a mini-cutscene which, when interrupted, feels unfair. There’s also a heavy reliance on consumables which aren’t readily available or farmable in the world for a lot of the big finisher moves so they often go unused. Overall it’s a good emulation of Rocksteady’s combat style, just in need of a little more tuning.

Mad Max Review Screenshot Wallpaper Lord Nitrous

The car combat is pretty simplistic by comparison, usually involving you ramming the other car into submission. As you progress through the story missions there are weapon upgrades that allow you to more effectively dispatch your enemies, like a harpoon that can rip wheels off, but the heavy investment requirement means you’ll have to forgo quite a few other upgrades to get them. Additionally for the most part you don’t really need all the bells and whistles, just having the fastest car (both in terms of top speed and acceleration) is all that’s needed for most encounters. The final boss battle is the only exception to this as you’ll struggle to finish it in a timely manner if you don’t have at least a Level 4 harpoon and another similarly upgraded weapon. It’d probably be made a lot better if the driving controls were a little more refined as the slightly janky steering, even on cars with the top handling, makes things more difficult than they should be.

As you’d expect from an open world game there’s numerous activities for you to do most of which will provide you some form of benefit. Clearing out camps for instance will net you a periodic amount of scrap, the currency that underpins the economy of Mad Max. Doing “projects” in strongholds will unlock certain benefits like giving you a full water canteen or opening up new types of missions for you to complete. Winning races will unlock a permanent location where you can fuel up your car whenever you want. For people who like to meander through games, picking and choosing whichever mission takes their fancy, this kind of thing is probably what they’re after. For me though these little side distractions just didn’t feel rewarding enough for me to bother with them for long. In the end I’d only go on scrap hunting missions if I needed it to unlock the next campaign mission which I only had to do a couple times.

Mad Max Review Screenshot Wallpaper Stuck in all the Wrong Places

It’s not a perfect experience by any stretch of the imagination as the above screenshot will attest to. You see there’s no jumping in Mad Max but there are multiple heights and in some instances you’ll find yourself trapped in a place you can’t get out of. Some of them aren’t even as obvious as the one pictured above. In one particular mission I managed to roll over some pipes which I couldn’t roll back out of. It’s clear what’s missing here, the movement system isn’t coded to deal with situations where the difference in terrain height is above a certain threshold. Whilst not every game needs to have the parkour stylings of Assassin’s Creed a more robust move system would be key in alleviating the unfortunately frequent problems that arise from the current simplistic implementation.

The story, if it were standing on its own, is fairly rudimentary although since it serves as a kind of prequel to the world of the movie it’s a little more interesting. Strictly speaking it’s a separate story in terms of canon and indeed Max’s character is quite different to the one portrayed in the cinema. However it does give you a little bit more insight into the reasons why Max ends up the way he is in the movie. Still it’s not much more than your typical action script, albeit it bereft of some of the more common components in favour of more talk of cars as a religion and all the craziness that the movie demonstrated.

Mad Max Review Screenshot Wallpaper The Plains of Silence

Mad Max is an example of what tie-in games can achieve if they have more than a token effort put into them. The barren wasteland world is beautifully realised with the landscapes reaching out from horizon to horizon. The core game mechanics are mostly well realised, often getting close to their more mature brethren from which they draw inspiration. For fans of the open world genre there’s more than enough activities to keep you going for numerous hours on end. For people like me though who aren’t so interested in the distractions the game is still readily playable if you do pretty much campaign missions only, you’ll just have to use your skill rather than your scrap to win fights. Suffice to say I was surprised by just how playable Mad Max was, especially given its tie in origins. If you’re one of the many raving fans of Fury Road then Mad Max is probably worth a look in.

Rating: 8.0/10

Mad Max is available on PC, XboxOne and PlayStation4 right now for $59.99, $99.95 and $99.95 respectively. Game was played on the PC with approximately 13 hours of total playtime and 29% of the achievements unlocked.