There’s a saying that goes “The speed of light is greater than the speed of sound, which is why some people appear bright before they open their mouths”. Whilst I’m sure that we can all remember someone who fits that description exactly not many people appreciate just how vast the difference is between the speed of light really is. Indeed in everyday life you can pretty much consider light to travel instantaneously since it could reach any point on earth in under a millisecond. That also means that visually observed phenomena can help us determine other things, like how far away the boat in the below video was from the volcano that erupted:
From the first point where you can see the eruption beginning to the time when the shockwave hits the camera approximately 13 seconds elapses. Taking into account that the speed of sound in air (roughly 341 m/s, although it could be slightly faster depending on the temperature) that gives us an approximate distance of 4.4 km from the eruption site. To put that in perspective the light that brought the picture traveled the same distance in about 0.01 milliseconds, an imperceptibly short amount of time. If you were so inclined you could also figure out all sorts of other kinds of information from this video (like the height of the plume, it’s velocity, etc.) but they’re an exercise I’ll leave up to the reader.
This video also showcases one of the coolest (in my opinion) visual phenomena related to massive explosions like this. You can see the shock wave propagating out from the epicenter very clearly, something which always happens but isn’t usually visible to the naked eye. Here you can see it travelling outwards thanks to it compressing the air in front of it which changes the refractive index of light. With explosions of this magnitude the amount of compression, and the resulting shock wave, are enough to produce a significant bend in the light passing through it.
I probably wouldn’t want to be that close to the explosion though!
The soft spot I’ve had for indie exploration games has developed into a fully fledged love affair as I continually find myself drawn to games that are light on game mechanics, heavy on atmosphere and use your innate sense of game play to guide you through the experience. I think I’ve come to understand just what it is that attracts me to these kinds of games, they’re essentially the most basic form of what we can call a game. Whilst there’s been examples of this genre which have rubbed me the wrong way it doesn’t take much to convince me a new entry is worth a look in and FRACT OSC from Phosfiend Systems caught my eye with a simple premise: revive a world through music.
You are dropped into a seemingly dead world, devoid of nearly all colour and sound. In the distance you see 3 giant pillars pointing skyward, strange curiosities in this startlingly desolate place. When you approach them however it becomes clear that these pillars have a purpose, and that you have the capability to unlock that. Shortly afterwards the pillars come to life, surging with colour and sound, and you ascend from the depths of a wasteland to another place, a relic of another time. With your help this relic can be revived, bringing back colour and sound to a world that has been long devoid of them.
Like most games of this genre FRACT takes a highly minimalistic approach with much of the scenery being very boxy and jagged, a trademark of extremely low poly work. Typically this is done for a couple reasons, usually time and resource constraints, however I think it’s partially because the whole scene is also run through a sort of scan line filter. It’s not immediately apparent from the screenshots (although if you look at the larger versions and zoom in you can see it) but things like that have a tendency to be very expensive, render time wise. At the same time though the environment is highly reactive to your presence with objects changing shape or illuminating themselves based on your presence. Whilst it’s reminiscent of other simplistic titles like Kairo it does feel distinctly different from them.
Like other exploration games there’s no real tutorial or introduction to speak of (although you could say that the first 3 pillars function as that) and so FRACT relies on your inbuilt game sense to get you going. For the most part you’ll be solving puzzles that are based around a few different kinds of mechanics, all of which have their basis in music and electronic sound generation. Some of them have you moving blocks around, others funneling light through different points in a Pipe Dream style minigame. All of them end up with you constructing a small riff in order to finish them off, with each section having a final sequence that proves to be quite challenging. So whilst a little knowledge of how synthesizers work will be an advantage you’d still be able to figure out most of it by trial and error, albeit taking a lot longer to figure everything out.
For the most part the puzzles are fairly logical in the way they work and whenever you’re stuck it’s usually because you haven’t noticed a particular mechanic that you could make use of. FRACT relies heavily on sound cues for those puzzles which involve fuzzy elements which can be a bit misleading at times, confusing you into thinking a particular sound is meaningful. Still usually it’s obvious enough that you know you’re heading in the right direction although there are a few notable exceptions. Mostly this is to do with the final puzzles that present you with a track selection and 4 dials. Without any indication as to what’s meaningful and what’s not (hint: only one set of inputs is) it leads to a rather frustrating experience, especially since you don’t get any feedback until you’ve almost completed it.
Whilst the puzzles are laid out in a logical order, one that you’ll likely notice if you’re not completely daft like myself, you can actually do them out of order if you know where to look. Now I’m not sure if this was an intended part of the game (and I’m leaning towards no since the only way I could get out after finish it was through the fast travel things) but I managed to do some of the red puzzles out of order by using some of the old “wall walking” tricks and finding a conveniently placed elevator. Indeed whilst this game might come under the exploration genre going off the beaten track isn’t likely to net you any benefit, apart from an achievement or two. It’s a little annoying as the game seems to want you to go down there but rarely does it reward you with anything.
You could say that there was a kind of narrative behind FRACT OSC as the way you interact with the game seems to indicate that you’re reviving a long dormant machine for your own purposes but unlike other exploration games I couldn’t find out how to make FRACT OSC end. Once you’ve unlocked everything, well I assume I got everything due to all the lights being on, there doesn’t seem to be anything else to do. You can go into your studio but that just seems to be a nice little add on to play around with the pads/sequencers/basslines you unlocked. So whilst FRACT OSC is fun to play the lack of a conclusion, at least one that I could find, does mean it feels a little unsatisfying.
FRACT OSC is an intriguing game, combining a minimalist aesthetic with some challenging game mechanics to provide a solid exploration experience. The brutal minimalism does have its drawbacks however as some of the puzzles, whilst on the surface seem intuitive, don’t provide adequate response to your input. The lack of a solid ending as well also makes all the work you’ve done feel somewhat hollow, especially if you don’t have a lot of interest in creating music in the studio afterwards. Still overall it was a pleasant experience, although one I’d probably only recommend to other exploration game fans.
FRACT OSC is available on PC right now for $14.99. Total game time was approximately 4 hours with 21% of the achievements unlocked.
It’s fascinating to think about how unique our perception of the world is. We like to think that everyone experiences the world in the same way we do but we all have subtle differences that influences the way we perceive the world. I for instance have partial red-green colorblindness which affects my ability to distinguish between darker shades of certain colours. The difference for me is subtle but for others who suffer from more pronounced colorblindness the different can be extremely drastic, completely changing how they view the world.
Similarly for those who are deaf or hearing impaired the world would seem like a very different place to them, bereft of all the noises and sounds we think are commonplace. For some there are treatment options available, like cochlear implants, and for the longest time I thought that the sounds that users of those devices were the same as the ones you and I can hear. As it turns out their auditory world could not be more different and the simulation below shows just how different it is:
I had read a little while ago that music sounded completely alien to those who had received cochlear implants but actually hearing what it might sound like was actually quite shocking. The improvements that came through with the extra channels were impressive but I had a hard time recognizing the elements of the music, even after I heard the original clip. I understand that the main function of cochlear implants isn’t music (they are primarily aimed at speech) but the differences were so stark that it was, to be honest, quite shocking.
Thankfully it does seem like there are vast improvements being made in this area, to the point where users claim that music is enjoyable for them. Hopefully with time we’ll be able to improve even further so one day the auditory world of those with cochlear implants won’t be much different from ours.
Most people have a rough idea about what plasma is, usually thanks to the plasma TV craze that hit many years ago and has since been replaced by LCDs, but few will know that plasma is actually one of the 4 fundamental states of matter right along side solid, liquid and gas. The transition between a gas and a plasma is done through a process called ionization/deionization which converts the gas into an electrically conductive cloud which can be done by either inducing a large voltage difference or by subjecting the gas to extremely high tempreatures. The following video shows the latter and is a rather cool demonstration of the transition process.
The short run time for sustaining the plasma cloud is simple, given enough time that superheated cloud of carbon atoms would start to melt the pyrex container which would free the plasma to wreck all sorts of havok on the microwave itself. I’m not sure how long it’d last though as it looks like the atomised carbon atoms need to be cluster together for it to work, hence the spool up time require to set up the initial plasma reaction. Indeed if my experiments with bananas are anything to go by (it’s relatively safe but still, I’m not going to recommend you do it) you’d instead get little flashes rather than the sustained cloud.
What really interested me was the hum that was generated as it was pretty regular and I couldn’t really figure out what would be causing it. As it turns out there’s actually a couple things that could be responsible and, interestingly enough, the frequency could change depending on the input frequency of the power source going to the microwave. That link also suggests another, similar experiment with cut in half grapes that’s supposedly a lot safer (although this site argues otherwise) and the results look very similar to my results with bananas. It seems there’s all manner of things you can use to create plasma in the microwave, something I didn’t expect.
This is one of those experiments that I reckon would be really great for class demonstrations (this is probably also the reason why I shouldn’t be allow to teach science in schools but come on, fire and explosions are awesome!).
It’s getting close to 2 years ago now that I was waiting in Orlando desperately hoping that I’d get to see the Space Shuttle Discovery launch in person, only to have it ripped away from me. I take solace in the fact that it was one of the longest launch delays in the Shuttle’s long history and whilst I didn’t get to go and see it when it did launch all those months later I did watch the online stream and my heart was renewed. Ever since then I’ve wanted to know what the experience would have been like and today it looks like I got my wish.
An enterprising YouTube user has set out to accomplish just that, and it’s magnificent:
Playing it back on my meagre Logitech speakers was impressive enough so I can only imagine how it will go with a proper sound system. I’ve scared the cat enough today with just the first play through so I’ll probably lay off it for a little bit but suffice to say it’s an impressive recreation of what it would be like to be at a shuttle launch. I certainly got nerd chills listening to it.